Water is vital for day-to-day life. Clean water ensures that both humans and animals do not contract diseases that may be caused by contaminants. Water is important for hygiene, production, and health. It is critical for water to be treated in order for it to be used for various purposes within the community.
Water treatment involves the removal of contaminants and unwanted substances such as gases, solids, and toxic chemicals from water. There are various steps that are involved in the treatment of water which you can find listed out below.
This is the first stage of water treatment. Here, natural contaminants of water are sieved and kept out. Plants, huge rocks, fish and wood, are done away with here. This is done for water from sources such as rivers and lakes. This is not necessary if the water is from the ground.
This stage involves the introduction of alum and chemicals into the water. When this occurs, many tiny particles come together, thereby coagulating. These particles of dirt merge with one another, thereby creating large particles called flocs.
Coagulation of particles makes them heavy. These heavy particles eventually sink to the bottom of the storage tanks. These stuck particles end up forming sediments as they settle within the sedimentation basins.
Sludge is also formed by the floc that is at the bottom of the basin. This sludge is piped out of the basin into lagoons for drying. Floc may also be done away through filtration during this stage.
Water is passed through filters. This is aimed at removing particles in the water. These filters consist of various beds of sand and gravel. Impurities within the water are collected in this process. Disinfection is also carried out here.
Parasites, bacteria, and viruses may be present in water. It is important for them to be destroyed. This will ensure that water is clean and safe. The disinfection stage in treatment kills any disease-causing elements within the water. Chlorine may be added as a disinfectant during this stage.
The addition of chlorine should, however, be done within prescribed levels. Addition of too much chlorine to water is not advisable. It can be harmful to one’s health.
Water supplies need to be treated through fluoridation. This reduces dental carries through the adjustment of the concentration of fluoride ion within the water. Optimum levels of fluoride need to be maintained.
7. pH correction
pH correction is carried out to adjust the pH of water. This is able to stabilize soft water. Corrosion of water distribution systems can be dealt with through pH correction. Lime water can be added to achieve this.
Large storage tanks are used here. They store water after all the above stages have been passed. Disinfection may still occur while water is in storage. Pipes are connected from these tanks for distribution of water to homes and workplaces for consumption.
Water treatment is very important. It gets rid of unwanted substances with water. Disease-causing bacteria are also dealt with in this process. Eventually, water treatment makes water clean and safe for consumption.